Cannabis and educational achievement
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Beautrais AL.
Christchurch Health and Development Study,
Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Christchurch, New Zealand.
Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1681-92
ABSTRACTAIMS: To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence/young adulthood and levels of educational attainment. DESIGN: Data were gathered over the course of a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. MEASUREMENTS: Measures analysed included (a) frequency of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood (15-25 years); (b) levels of educational achievement to age 25 years; and (c) social, family and individual characteristics assessed prior to age 16. FINDINGS: Increasing cannabis use was associated with increasing risks of leaving school without qualifications, failure to enter university and failure to obtain a university degree. The association between cannabis use and leaving school without qualifications persisted after control for confounding factors. When due allowance was made for pre-existing levels of cannabis use there was no evidence to suggest the presence of reverse causal pathways in which lower educational achievement led to increased cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the view that cannabis use may act to decrease educational achievement in young people. It is likely that this reflects the effects of the social context within which cannabis is used rather than any direct effect of cannabis on cognitive ability or motivation.Memory
Just say know
The nectar of delight
Humans are not rats
Rodent cannabis abuse
Cannabis and schizophrenia
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15
The Hedonistic Imperative
When Is It Best To Take Crack Cocaine?
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family