Towards cannabis and cannabinoid treatment of multiple sclerosis
Croxford JL, Miller SD.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology,
Feinberg School of Medicine,
Northwestern University,
Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2004 Aug;40(8):663-76


Multiple sclerosis is a common human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and it is thought to involve autoimmune responses to CNS myelin antigens. Current symptomatic therapies for multiple sclerosis are in some cases ineffective and may have a high risk of serious side effects. This has led some multiple sclerosis patients to self-medicate with cannabis, which anecdotal evidence suggests may be beneficial in controlling symptoms such as spasticity, pain, tremor and bladder dysfunction. In support of these claims, results from experimental studies have suggested that cannabinoid-based treatments may be beneficial in a wide number of diseases. Furthermore, recent research in animal models of multiple sclerosis has demonstrated the efficacy of cannabinoids in controlling disease-induced symptoms such as spasticity and tremor, as well as in ameliorating the severity of clinical disease. However, these initially promising results have not yet been fully translated into the clinic. Although cannabinoid treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms has been shown to be both well tolerated and effective in a number of subjective tests in several small-scale clinical trials, objective measures demonstrating the efficacy of cannabinoids are still lacking. Currently, a number of large-scale phase III clinical trials are under way to further elucidate the use of cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis. This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, discusses both the experimental and clinical evidence for the use of cannabinoids to treat multiple sclerosis and explores possible future strategies of cannabinoid therapy in multiple sclerosis.

Hemp oil
Cannabis: effects
Forgetful rodents
Stoned chocaholics?
The nectar of delight
Cannabis and schizophrenia
Cannabinoids/Parkinson's disease
Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis model

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15


Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Hedonistic Imperative
MDMA: Utopian Pharmacology
When Is It Best To Take Crack Cocaine?

swan image
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family